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What are the functions and precautions of blood transfusion apparatus?

Date:2019-04-12Source:

A transfusion device for establishing the access between blood and vein is composed of a bottle insertion needle, an air intake needle or an air intake hole (without air filter), a needle guard cap, a Y-shaped three-way pipeline (without, with a stop-flow clamp in the pipeline), a dropper (with a blood filter in the dropper), a pipeline, a drug-adding orifice (without), a flow regulator, an injection piece (without), and a No. 7 (23G). ) More than one intravenous needle or injection needle (not included).

1. Use cautions

(1) Before blood transfusion, a strict check system should be established: two or more persons should check the number of beds, the names of donors and recipients, blood type, blood volume, blood number, test results of cross matching, types of blood, date of blood collection, validity period and quality of blood. Check before, during and after the operation. Check the name of the person after the operation. Returned blood should be kept at room temperature for half an hour to prevent adverse reactions caused by blood supercooling.

(2) Before blood transfusion, patients and their families should be informed of the causes of blood transfusion, the risks of blood transfusion and the possible adverse reactions after blood transfusion, so that patients can actively cooperate with the treatment. During and after blood transfusion, the whole body condition of patients should be closely observed.

(3) Strict aseptic operation in blood transfusion to ensure proper blood transfusion device, not violent shock of blood bags, before and after transfusion with 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Follow the principle of slow first and then fast, control the speed of blood transfusion, blood transfusion begins 15 minutes slowly, closely observe the patient's condition changes, if no adverse reactions, according to the needs of the disease, age and blood composition to adjust the drip rate. Platelet function decreases with the prolongation of storage time. Therefore, platelets from the blood bank should be imported as soon as possible at the fastest speed that patients can tolerate in order to achieve hemostatic effect. Blood transfusion should be completed within 5 hours and continuous infusion should be ensured. If the infusion exceeds 5 hours, the blood should be discarded.

(4) Shortly after the blood transfusion, there will be a slow or stop of blood transfusion. The reasons are as follows:

(1) Venous spasm: Local venous spasm is the body's response to cold fluids and intermittent flow. Hot compress can dilate veins and improve the speed of blood transfusion.

(2) Pipeline folding of blood transfusion apparatus: Because of external causes, the folding place can be opened and fixed.

(3) Improper replacement of blood transfusion equipment: Standard transfusion filter can remove blood clots and white blood cells accumulated during storage, but the same transfusion device has been used for more than 5 hours continuously. Some blood components adhere to and precipitate in the filter, affecting the drip rate, so it is necessary to replace the transfusion device.

(4) Blocked casing: If the casing is blocked, it needs to be replaced.

(5) Closely observe the patient's blood transfusion reaction during the transfusion process. Once there are abnormal symptoms such as chills, high fever, dyspnea, severe pain in the back and back, the transfusion should be stopped immediately, and the doctor should be reported for treatment.

(6) It should be emphasized that blood transfusion can take place 10 minutes before transfusion, especially calcium gluconate can react easily with substances in plasma to form colloid and block needles. The blood collected from the blood station must be combined with blood from the blood bank of our hospital before it can be used by the patients.

2. Guidelines for Use

(1) The use of disposable blood transfusion devices in line with national standards, so as to achieve "three syndrome" complete.

(2) To check whether the product packaging is well sealed, attention should be paid to the quality and validity period, the product type and the specifications of intravenous needles.

(3) Strictly abide by the principle of aseptic operation and implement the blood transfusion check-up system (that is, three check-ups and eight check-ups).

(4) When exhausting during blood transfusion, we should avoid squeezing the Murphy dropper as much as possible, so as not to cause a large number of bubbles mixed into the liquid because the liquid rushes to the Murphy dropper of the blood transfusion device quickly. The air in the blood transfusion device should be exhausted. The liquid level in the Murphy dropper should be 2/3 and the lowest should not be less than 1/2.

(5) Before and after transfusion, 0.9% sodium chloride injection was used to wash the transfusion apparatus. When the blood of different blood donors was continuously transfused, 0.9% sodium chloride injection was used to wash the transfusion channels before and after transfusion.

(6) In the process of blood transfusion, the speed of blood transfusion should be adjusted according to the condition and age, and the adverse reactions of blood transfusion (including hemolysis reaction, fever reaction, avoidance of causing various infectious diseases, etc.) should be observed closely. If abnormal situation occurs, it should be handled promptly and reported to the doctor.

(7) Strengthen patrol during blood transfusion, observe the changes of the condition, inquire about patients'feelings, pay attention to common problems in the process of blood transfusion (such as non-dripping solution, self-falling liquid level of Murphy dropper, blood drip leakage phenomenon, etc.), such as abnormal situation and timely treatment.

(8) Strict and standardized operation after the use of a blood transfusion device, timely disfiguration, disinfection and harmless treatment.

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